|Base Welt: A decorative, fabric-covered, rope-like trim
added to the bottom of furniture, such as; dining room chair seats. The
welt trim is cut on the bias in 1-1/2˝ strips. A rope like material is
sewn in the center of the strip and then it is stapled into place.
Basting Stitch: A temporary long stitch made on the sewing machine that
can be easily removed. This stitch is commonly used when sewing a zipper
Bias: To cut on a slant or diagonal. Fabric used to make welt cord
should be cut on the bias. This adds strength and wear ability to the
fabric and also makes it easier to tailor.
Blind Stitch: A stitch made when hand sewing two pieces of fabric
together. A curved needle is commonly used when sewing a blind stitch.
Tip! The key to hand-sewing a blind stitch is to keep the stitches
parallel to each other. This prevents the fabric from bunching.
Blind Tack: A technique used to replace blind stitching or any hand
sewing. Cardboard tack strip is stapled over the backside of the fabric
and the fabric is then pulled and stapled into place. This technique is
commonly used on the top of outside arms and the top of outside backs.
Boxed Edge: The term used to describe the edge of a cushion. This edge
is sewn with boxing between the two faces. A welt cord or other type of
trim may be added to the boxing.
Boxing: The strip of fabric between the top and bottom of the cushion
Crowned: To add loft or height to a cushion or pillow. An outward bow
should be cut into the fabric if the cushion or pillow is to have a
large amount of loft . This bow will keep the edge of the cushion
straight when filled with a loft ed filling.
Double Welt: Used as a decorative trim, it is most commonly used to
cover the raw edge of fabric where it meets a decorative wood surface.
This welt trim is cut on the bias and in 2-1/2˝ to 3˝ strips. To make
this welt trim, fold over only 1-1/2˝ of the fabric and sew a welt cord
into place using a welt foot on the sewing machine. After the first cord
is sewn into place, a second cord will be sewn. Place the second cord
(tightly) next to the first sewn cord and roll the entire piece over.
Sew the two cords together by sewing down the center of the two cords
and on the previous sew line. Work with about six to eight inches at one
time. Finally, trim the remaining tail off of the backside of the trim
and hot glue the trim to the desired area.
Drop Match: Drop-matched patterns do not have the same pattern from side
to side on the 54˝ width of fabric, they are staggered. (In most cases,
if you split the 54˝ width of fabric, the patterns on the fabric will
look the same on each side. This enables you to split the width of
fabric and cut two of the same items such as both arm pieces and cushion
tops out of the 54˝ width of fabric.) When using a drop-matched pattern,
the cushion top is cut from one side of the fabric, then you will need
to drop down (unroll) the other side of the fabric to find the same
pattern to match. Drop-matched patterns normally require more fabric for
matching when upholstering and are better suited for drapery making.
Face: The correct side of the fabric.
Hand Sew: A technique used to join two or more items together. A curved
needle and a blind stitch is commonly used when hand sewing.
Knife Edge: To have only one seam on an edge of a pillow or cushion. A
welt cord or other type of trim may be added to the seam.
Lockstitch: Added stitches to secure, lock, or add strength to the
seamed area. When using a sewing machine, a reverse stitch is commonly
Loose Tack: A temporary means of holding fabric in place until stapled.
The tack is hammered only part of the way into place making it easy to
remove when needed.
Mirror Image: To show the opposite image as if you were looking into a
mirror. Arms, wings, and arm panels should be applied to show the mirror
image of each other to achieve a professional look.
Mitered: To join together with an angle. Most corners on the deck area
are made with a mitered cut.
Non-Directional: Patterned fabric that can be cut “up the roll” or
“railroaded”, either direction is proper. Once decided upon, continue
cutting all the pieces in the same direction.
Railroaded: The patterns or stripes are woven or printed from selvage to
selvage, as opposed to “up the roll”. This allows you to cut endless
lengths of fabric without having to seam the patterns together. When
working with long cushions or items such as sofas that are longer than
54˝, there is no need to sew widths of fabric together to achieve the
desired lengths. This generally saves fabric and a great deal of time.
Relief Cuts: Small cuts made generally on curved areas to help the
fabric conform to the desired shape.
Seam Allowance: The amount of extra fabric added to an item to be sewn.
The most common seam allowance in upholstering is 1/2˝.
Selvage: A woven edge that prevents fabric from unraveling. The selvages
are located on each edge of the fabric and should be removed before
cutting the fabric pieces.
Slip Seat: A style of dining room seat. The fabric is wrapped around a
padded wooden board, secured with staples or tacks and sewing is not
involved. The seats are commonly attached to the chair with screws. A
base welt trim can be added for a more decorative appearance.
Tight Seat: A style of seat where the fabric is pulled around the padded
area and permanently secured to the frame with staples or tacks. A loose
cushion will not be applied over this area.
Top Stitch: An added stitch to a seam to enhance the appearance and or
strength of the seam. This decorative stitch can be on one or both sides
of the seam.
Up The Roll: The patterns or stripes are woven or printed “up the roll”
of fabric similar to wallpaper as opposed to being woven or printed from
selvage to selvage.
Welt Cord: A decorative, fabric-covered rope-like trim used in seams and
on the edges of furniture. If the welt cord is being made of the same
fabric it is called self-welt. If the welt is being made in a different
fabric it is called contrasting-welt.